Hardening Active Directory
We should understand some of the common defense tactics that can be implemented and how they would affect the networks we are assessing. These basic hardening steps will do much more for an organization (regardless of size) than purchasing the next big EDR or SIEM tool. Those extra defensive measures and equipment only help if you have a baseline security posture with features like logging enabled and proper documentation and tracking of the hosts within the network.
Document and Audit
Proper AD hardening can keep attackers contained and prevent lateral movement, privilege escalation, and access to sensitive data and resources. One of the essential steps in AD hardening is understanding everything present in your AD environment. An audit of everything listed below should be done annually, if not every few months, to ensure your records are up to date. We care about:
Things To Document and Track
Naming conventions of OUs, computers, users, groups
DNS, network, and DHCP configurations
An intimate understanding of all GPOs and the objects that they are applied to
Assignment of FSMO roles
Full and current application inventory
A list of all enterprise hosts and their location
Any trust relationships we have with other domains or outside entities
Users who have elevated permissions
People, Processes, and Technology
In even the most hardened environment, users remain the weakest link. Enforcing security best practices for standard users and administrators will prevent "easy wins" for pentesters and malicious attackers. We should also strive to keep our users educated and aware of threats to themselves. The measures below are a great way to start securing the Human element of an AD environment.
- The organization should have a strong password policy, with a password filter that disallows the use of common words (i.e., welcome, password, names of months/days/seasons, and the company name). If possible, an enterprise password manager should be used to assist users with choosing and using complex passwords.
- Rotate passwords periodically for all service accounts.
- Disallow local administrator access on user workstations unless a specific business need exists.
- Disable the default
RID-500 local adminaccount and create a new admin account for administration subject to LAPS password rotation.
- Implement split tiers of administration for administrative users. Too often, during an assessment, you will gain access to Domain Administrator credentials on a computer that an administrator uses for all work activities.
- Clean up privileged groups.
Does the organization need 50+ Domain/Enterprise Admins?Restrict group membership in highly privileged groups to only those users who require this access to perform their day-to-day system administrator duties.
- Where appropriate, place accounts in the
- Disable Kerberos delegation for administrative accounts (the Protected Users group may not do this)
Maintaining and enforcing policies and procedures that can significantly impact an organization's overall security posture is necessary. Without defined policies, it is impossible to hold an organization's employees accountable, and difficult to respond to an incident without defined and practiced procedures such as a disaster recovery plan. The items below can help to define processes, policies, and procedures.
- Proper policies and procedures for AD asset management.
- AD host audit, the use of asset tags, and periodic asset inventories can help ensure hosts are not lost.
- Access control policies (user account provisioning/de-provisioning), multi-factor authentication mechanisms.
- Processes for provisioning and decommissioning hosts (i.e., baseline security hardening guideline, gold images)
- AD cleanup policies
Are accounts for former employees removed or just disabled?
What is the process for removing stale records from AD?
- Processes for decommissioning legacy operating systems/services (i.e., proper uninstallation of Exchange when migrating to 0365).
- Schedule for User, groups, and hosts audit.
Periodically review AD for legacy misconfigurations and new and emerging threats. As changes are made to AD, ensure that common misconfigurations are not introduced. Pay attention to any vulnerabilities introduced by AD and tools or applications utilized in the environment.
- Run tools such as BloodHound, PingCastle, and Grouper periodically to identify AD misconfigurations.
- Ensure that administrators are not storing passwords in the AD account description field.
- Review SYSVOL for scripts containing passwords and other sensitive data.
- Avoid the use of "normal" service accounts, utilizing Group Managed (gMSA) and Managed Service Accounts (MSA) where ever possible to mitigate the risk of Kerberoasting.
- Disable Unconstrained Delegation wherever possible.
- Prevent direct access to Domain Controllers through the use of hardened jump hosts.
- Consider setting the
0, which disallows users from adding machine accounts and can prevent several attacks such as the noPac attack and Resource-Based Constrained Delegation (RBCD)
- Disable the print spooler service wherever possible to prevent several attacks
- Disable NTLM authentication for Domain Controllers if possible
- Use Extended Protection for Authentication along with enabling Require SSL only to allow HTTPS connections for the Certificate Authority Web Enrollment and Certificate Enrollment Web Service services
- Enable SMB signing and LDAP signing
- Take steps to prevent enumeration with tools like BloodHound
- Ideally, perform quarterly penetration tests/AD security assessments, but if budget constraints exist, these should be performed annually at the very least.
- Test backups for validity and review/practice disaster recovery plans.